German Cockroach in Adult Stage
- Size: Approximately 1.3 to 1.6 cm long
- Color: Light brown or tan with two dark bands on the pronotum
- Distinctive Feature: Two dark bands on the head
- Habitat: Prefers warm and humid environments, often found in kitchens and bathrooms
- Detection Element: Presence of small droppings resembling black pepper, musky odor, insects visible at night in the kitchen or bathroom.
Adult German cockroaches measure between 1.3 and 1.6 cm in length, making them among the smallest species of cockroaches. Their body is oval and flat, which allows them to slip into narrow cracks and crevices to hide. German cockroaches are light brown to dark brown in color. A distinctive feature of the species is the presence of two parallel longitudinal bands on the pronotum – the plate that covers the thorax just behind the head. These bands are darker in color, ranging from brown to black.
German cockroaches have two pairs of wings. The upper wings, called elytra, are brownish in color and cover almost the entire abdomen in males but are slightly shorter in females. However, despite having wings, German cockroaches do not fly.
Their antennas are long, thin, and highly mobile, which allows them to detect food and pheromones left by other cockroaches. Their heads are small and pointed downwards, with a pair of compound eyes that allow them to see in multiple directions at once.
German Cockroach Nymph
- Size: 0.3 cm to 1 cm
- Color: Darker than adults, often dark brown or blackish
- Distinctive Feature: Resembles the adult but without wings
- Habitat: Identical to the adult
When the eggs hatch, they release nymphs. German cockroach nymphs are smaller than adults, measuring about 3 mm in length at their first molt. They are dark brown in color and do not have wings.
As they grow, the nymphs molt several times (usually 6 to 7 times) and become larger with each molt. The nymphal stage usually lasts 6 to 12 weeks, although this can vary depending on environmental factors such as temperature and humidity.
Ootheca of German Cockroach
- Size: Approximately 6 to 9 mm long
- Color: Light brown to dark brown
- Appearance: Oblong shape, slightly bulging, with a structure like plastic or papier-mâché, often found hidden behind furniture, in cracks or crevices
The eggs of German cockroaches are contained in a structure called an ootheca. The ootheca is oblong, light brown to dark in color, and measures about 8 mm long. Each ootheca contains an average of 30 to 40 cockroaches. Females typically carry the ootheca until a few hours before hatching.
Habitat of German Cockroaches
The habitat of German cockroaches is closely linked to human activity. They prefer warm and humid environments, which often leads them to infest kitchens, bathrooms, and food storage areas in homes and commercial establishments. These insects are nocturnal and hide in cracks, crevices, under electrical appliances, and in other dark corners during the day. They can also be found in less obvious areas like electrical outlets, behind wallpaper, and under baseboards. Their presence is often indicated by droppings that look like small black dots, eggs, or an unpleasant and musky odor.
Behavior of German Cockroaches
German cockroaches are known for their ability to survive in difficult environments, making them particularly tenacious once they have established themselves in a location. They are omnivorous and feed on a wide variety of foods, including waste, human food, and even substances like paper, leather, or glue. Their reproduction is rapid and efficient, with females capable of producing several dozen offspring in a year, exacerbating the problem of infestation. They primarily communicate through pheromones, which allow them to signal danger, find mates for reproduction, and locate food sources. Their nocturnal nature makes them particularly difficult to spot and eradicate, often requiring the intervention of specialized pest control methods.
Distinguishing the German Cockroach from Other Insects
This species is similar in size to the German cockroach but is darker, with clear transverse bands on its body. It also prefers drier places than the German cockroach, affecting the treatment method and locations where it will be found.
This species is much larger than the German cockroach, reaching up to 2.5 cm in length. It is also darker in color, ranging from brown to black. Another distinction is that female oriental cockroaches do not have wings, while males have short wings that do not fully cover their abdomen.
This species is much larger than the German cockroach, reaching up to 4 cm in length. It is reddish-brown in color and has a horseshoe-shaped pattern on the pronotum (segment behind the head).
Red Flour Beetle
These small insects are similar in size to the German cockroaches and have a similar brownish color. However, their body is more rounded, and they have more visible antennas that end in a three-segmented club. They are also more likely to infest dry food products.